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Forceps Delivery


Reasons

  • ease delivery

  • control head

  • shorten 2nd stage labour if foetal distress or abnormal foetal position

Indications

  • maternal distress

  • foetal distress

  • delay in second stage

  • occipito-transverse, occipito-posterior positions

Prerequisites

  • Fully dilated

  • 0/5 palpable

  • Ruptured membranes

  • Cephalic presentation

  • Empty bladder

  • Pain relief / Position known

  • Station at or below spines

Contraindications

  • foeto-pelvic disproportion

  • incomplete dilatation of cervix

  • failure of engagement

  • indeterminate presentation / position

  • insufficient skill of operator

Alternative

Complications

  • injury to mother and foetus

  • tear of

    • vaginal wall

    • cervix

    • bladder

  • fistula

  • facial nerve palsy

  • bruising

 

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